KORYO: KINGDOM OF KOREA (918-1392 A.D.):
Koryo is the name of an ancient dynasty in the Korean peninsula. The English name of "Korea" originated from the name of this "Koryo" dynasty which was famed for the valiant spirit of its people with which they defeated the Mongolian aggression. Koryo Poomsae is based on sprit of Sonbae(Sonbi) which was inherited from Koguryo to Balhae and to Koryo. Sonbae means strong martial art and honest spirit of scholars.
KUMGANG: Diamond, symbol of hardness and strength, wisdom and virtue.
The word "Kumgang '' has originally the meaning of being too strong to be broken. Also in Buddhism, what can break off every agony of mind with combination of wisdom and virtue is called "Kumgang". The Poomsae "Kumgang" is named after Mount Kumgang, symbol of solidity. "Kumgang" is also analogous to "diamond".
TAEBAEK: Mountain range, (now Mount Baek Doo)
"Taebaek" is the ancient name of Mount Paekdu where the legendary Tangun founded a nation for the first time in the Korean peninsula 4,329 years ago on Tangun calendar(1996 AD = 4329 Tangun year). Poomsae "Taeback" takes its principles of movement from the word "Taeback" which means being looked up to as sacred.
PYONGWON: Simple, plain and unpretentious.
"Pyongwon" means 'vast plain'. The plain is a source of sustaining the human life and, also, a great open plain stretching out endlessly gives us a feeling of majesty that is different from what we feel with a mountain or the sea. An application of the providence of the plain which is blessed with abundance and grace as well as boundless vastness into the practice of Taekwondo is Poomse Pyongwon (plain).
SIPJIN: Decimal point, perfect numerical system
Sipjin has the meaning of 'decimal system' which stands for a symbolical figure of 10 meaning endless development and growth in a systematic order. In Poomse Sipjin, stability is sought in every change of movements.
JITAE: everything comes from and goes back to Earth
According to the oriental belief, all living things come from and return to the earth (Jitae is derived from the meaning of the earth). The earth is indeed the origin and terminal of life. Living things as well as all the natural phenomena of the earth originate mainly from the changes and the form of the earth. Poomsae "Jitae" is the movement which applies these features of the earth.
CHUNKWON: Sky, symbol of Heaven, Ruler of the Universe and all human beings
"Chunkwon" signifies the sky. From ancient times the orientals have always believed and worshipped the sky as ruler of the universe and human beings. The infinitely vast sky may be a mysterious and profound world of imagination in the eyes of finite human beings. Poomsae Chunkwon is composed of the motions which are full of piety and vitality.
HANSOO: Water (forceful and lifegiving element), fluidity, strength and adaptability
Poomsae "Hansoo" derived from the word 'water' is typical with its fluidity and adaptability as manifested in the nature of water.
ILYEO: Oneness (ultimate unification with God and nature)
"Ilyeo" signifies oneness. In Buddhism the state of spiritual cultivation is said to be "Ilyeo" (oneness), in which body and mind, I (subject) and you (object), spirit and substance are unified into oneness. The ultimate ideal of Taekwondo lies in this state of Ilyeo. The final goal Taekwondo pursues is indeed a discipline in which we concentrate attention on every movement, shaking off all worldly thoughts and obsessions.
The form makes the pattern of a swastika on the floor, However, this swastika is the reverse of the well-known Nazi swastika. This is a Buddhist swastika, and it means oneness.